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Technical Glossary

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Bandwidth refers to data transfer rates and is typically measured by an amount of data that is carried from one point to another in a given time period.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
A standardized exterior gateway protocol that exchanges routing information between autonomous systems in a network.
The ability to utilize higher bandwidths for increased network speeds, allowing you to transfer large files without interruption.


Cloud Computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a public utility.
Cloud Computing
Third-party organizations who pay telecommunication providers for the use of their fiber to connect the cell towers to their users.
CIR (Committed Information Rate):
The guaranteed network data rate that users can use 100% of the time. The CIR can be locked down eliminating the chance of exceeding the contracted data rate and experiencing overage charges.


Dark Fiber
Dark Fiber refers to currently unused fiber-optic cable, established by telecommunication providers. These fiber routes are leased to companies who want to establish, or “light” connections outside of their footprint.
Data Center
A is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g. air conditioning, fire suppression) and various security devices. A large data center is an industrial-scale operation using as much electricity as a small town.


Ethernet is a different data protocol than Internet, providing higher data density, security and greater reliability compared to Internet services.


Facilities-Based Network
Facilities-based operators are those deploying networks and facilities to offer telecom transmission services.
Fault Tolerance
This feature enables a system to continue to operate if one or more failures or faults occur within a network.
Fiber Routes
Fiber routes are measured by the conduit length of fiber strands and are used to approximate a company’s reach in their infrastructure.
Optical fibers refer to the fiber used to transmit information from a sender to a receiver. Fiber optic wire carries significantly more information than the traditional copper wire and provides greater resiliency to signal interruptions.
Full Duplex Network
A network that provides the same level of bandwidth in both directions of the fiber simultaneously, ensuring both your upload and download rates are consistent.


Gigabyte (gig)
A gigabyte is a unit of information to one billion bytes. A gigabyte is considered a larger measurement for data information.


A network that supports the transmission of data signals in both directions, but, unlike Full-Duplex, Half-Duplex does not support simultaneous transmissions.
A hop is one portion of the network path between the information sender and the receiver. Data packets pass through multiple bridges, routers and gateways on their path to the receiver. Each time a packet is passed through a bridge, router or gateway, a hop occurs, slowing the data transmission slightly.


A local area network (LAN) provides direct access to a Layer 2 environment. It is typically made up of Ethernet switches.
Latency represents the delay between a packet of data being sent and received from one designated point to another. Latency greatly affects the speed and usability of data transmissions and communications. If latency were related to a highway, bandwidth would represent how many lanes are available on the highway, whereas latency is the speed limit on the highway.
Layer 1
The physical layer in a network consisting of fiber, cables and connections. This Layer 1 environment is where data is transmitted and transported to virtual networks.
Layer 2
This data link layer transfers data to other network notes and in wide area network (WAN) or between nodes on a local area network (LAN).
Layer 3
This network layer manages packet forwarding, which includes routing through intermediate routers and recognizes and forwards the data for the local host domain.
"Lit" Buildings
A "lit" building has an established fiber route connecting this environment to a high-capacity network.


A megabit is a unit of information the size of one million bits and is frequently used to measure the amount of data that is transferred between two points within one second’s time.
Megabyte (meg)
A megabyte is a unit of information the size of one million bytes. A meg is considered a small measurement for data information.


Native IP V6
An advanced network where the infrastructure has been upgraded to support IP V6 capabilities, and typically has a connection to the public IP V6 internet.
Network providers
A network service provider is a business or organization that offers telecommunications, network and/or bandwidth services by providing direct access to their network infrastructure.
(Network to Network Interface) is an interface that specifies signaling and management functions between two networks. An NNI circuit can be used for interconnection of signaling.


On-net Locations
Virtual Private Networks that are connected via dedicated lines are considered on-net.


PBX stands for Private Branch Exchange, which is a private telephone network used within a company or organization. The users of the PBX phone system can communicate internally (within their company) and externally (with the outside world), using different communication channels like Voice over IP, ISDN or analog.
Point-to-multipoint involves data transmissions between one sender and multiple receivers. Point-to-multipoint communications can be wired or wireless and involve communication between multiple parties.
Data transmissions between a single transmitter and a single receiver occurs in a point-to-point environment. Point-to-point communications can be wired or wireless and involve communication between two parties.
(Primary Rate Interface) is a physical connection to the PSTN over a dedicated line that only serves voice transmission.


Redundancy is a safeguard for data communications through using protected fiber routes with diverse paths. Networks with redundancy have an added layer of reliability, translating to minimal disruptions in service. With redundant pathways, a network has to fail in multiple environments to cause an outage.
Ring Ethernet Data Circuits
Data rings ensure switched fabric through a diverse path, so even if there’s a break in the data transitions pathway or a damaged fiber, information is still transmitted without interruptions.
Ring Networks (Ring Protection)
Data rings reduce service disruptions and provide built-in redundancy to offer the greatest protection against downtime.
Routed Network
This network infrastructure distributes data information throughout all routers between different networks. Routed networks operate at Layer 3.


Scalability refers to a networks capacity for growth and future expansion. Within a scalable network, customers can expand and/or upgrade their service usage through their current network.
SD-WAN (Software-Defined Networking) in a WAN (wide area network)
An SD-WAN simplifies the management and operation of a WAN by decoupling (separating) the networking hardware from its control mechanism. This concept is similar to how software-defined networking implements virtualization technology to improve data center management and operation.
SDN (Software-Defined Networking)
SDN technology is a novel approach to cloud computing that facilitates network management and enables programmatically efficient network configuration in order to improve network performance and monitoring. SDN is meant to address the fact that the static architecture of traditional networks is decentralized and complex while current networks require more flexibility and easy troubleshooting.
SIP (Session Initiating Protocol) Trunking is a virtual connection to the PSTN over a physical line that is often shared over your existing data connection.
Switched Fabric
This is a network topology in which network nodes interconnect via one or more network switches (particularly crossbar switches). Because a switched fabric network spreads network traffic across multiple physical links, it yields higher total throughput than broadcast networks, such as early Ethernet.
Switched Network
This network infrastructure breaks down data into smaller packets before sending these packets through network channels. Once data packets reach their destination, the data is reassembled into its original order. This network is considered to be a faster network infrastructure. Switched networks operate at layer 2.


(User Network Interface)- is the physical demarcation point between the responsibility of the Subscriber (UNI-C, the Customer Edge or CE) and the responsibility of the Service Provider (UNI-N)


A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) enables network operators to partition their networks to meet both the security and functionality requirements of their systems without installing new fiber in the current network infrastructure.
Deliver voice communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. These services include on-premise VoIP or digital telephony applications and Cloud VoIP Telephony.


Wide Area Network (WAN)
A wide area network expands across a large geographical area, connecting multiple smaller networks, including local area networks (LAN).